Overlaps between Secret Mark, the Raising of Lazarus in John, and the Gerasene Swine episode in Mark

This post is both in English and Swedish
Detta inlägg är på både engelska och svenska

IN ENGLISH

David Blocker just wrote to me and said that he had seen my most recent post about Oxyrhynchus 5072 (Ett nytt evangelium påträffat?), and reminded me of a table he had sent me last month demonstrating similarities between the Secret Mark fragment quoted by Clement, the Raising of Lazarus episode in the Gospel of John, and the episode of the Gerasene Swine in the canonical Gospel of Mark.

I must consider this a preliminary presentation of findings, since David was working with translations and not the original Greek texts. Still I think this is interesting finding which deserves more study to evaluate its significance.

What is of particular interest is that Tony Burke had posted on his web site that the Fragment of the New Unknown Gospel from Oxyrhynchus unlike the canonical gospels, did not mention a legion of swine being used as a receptacle for the discarded demons.

I have been kind of busy lately (renovating the house), so I might as well publish David Blocker’s table. It shows that the section in Mark where Jesus drove the demons into the herd of swine does not (unlike the rest of the story) have any significant language or subject parallels in either the Secret Mark fragment or the episode of the Raising of Lazarus.

Does this confirm that the pigs are a later addition to the story, added after an original pigless story had been used as a model for other texts?  Was the story of the swine inserted into a preexistent Markan healing story that was somehow already related to the “raising Lazarus from the dead”-story in John and Secret Mark?

Since the Swine do not actually appear to have any overlap with the adjacent story of the possessed man, the story of the Swine appears to be another intercalation or at least addition. It seems like “Mark” had a collection of unconnected stories that he pasted together to create a single narrative. His literary techniques with intercalations and framing stories (i.e. putting some of his stores inside other stories instead of pasting them one after another) give us an idea of how freely he worked with his material.

David Blocker’s Table is presented beneath, but for a better view with all the parallels highlighted in different colours, I recommend the pdf-file at SM_JnLazarus_MkSwine

PÅ SVENSKA

David Blocker skrev alldeles nyss till mig och sa att han hade sett mitt senaste inlägg om Oxyrhynchus 5072 (Ett nytt evangelium påträffat?), och påminde mig om en tabell som han skickade mig förra månaden och som pekar på vissa likheter mellan passagen ur Hemliga Markusevangeliet som Klemens citerar, episoden om uppväckandet av Lasaros i Johannesevangeliet, och berättelsen om grisarna i Gerasa i det kanoniska Markusevangeliet.

Jag betraktar detta som en preliminär presentation av materialet eftersom David Blocker har arbetat med översättningar och inte med den grekiska originaltexten. Jag anser trots detta att det är ett intressant fynd som förtjänar att studeras grundligare.

Det som är särskilt intressant är att Tony Burke på sin hemsida har skrivit att det nyidentifierade fragmentet från Oxyrhynchus av ett hittills okänt evangelium, till skillnad från de kanoniska evangelierna, inte nämner att en hjord av grisar används till att förvara en legion av fördrivna demoner.

Jag har varit rätt upptagen på sistone (med att renovera huset), så jag kan lika gärna publicera Davids Blockers tabell som den är. Den visar att det avsnitt i Markusevangeliet där Jesus fördriver demonerna in i grisarna (till skillnad från resten av berättelsen) inte har någon betydande vare sig språklig eller tematisk parallell till Hemliga Markusevangeliet eller Lazarosberättelsen i Johannesevangeliet.

Styrker detta att berättelsen om grisarna är ett senare tillägg till historien, tillagt efter att en ursprunglig berättelse utan grisar hade använts som modell för andra texter? Infogades historien om grisarna i en sedan tidigare existerande markinsk helandeberättelse som på något sätt redan stod i relation till berättelsen om uppväckandet av Lasaros i Johannesevangeliet och Hemliga Markusevangeliet?

Eftersom berättelsen om grisarna inte verkar gripa in den intilliggande berättelsen om den besatte mannen, förefaller berättelsen om grisarna vara ytterligare en interkalation eller åtminstone ett tillägg. Det verkar som om ”Markus” hade en samling osammanhängande berättelser som han fogade samman till en enda berättelse. Hans litterära tekniker med interkalationer och inramningsberättelser (det vill säga att infoga några av berättelserna i andra berättelser i stället för att foga dem efter varandra) ger oss en uppfattning om hur fritt han arbetat med sitt material.

Inunder återges David Blockers tabell, men för en tydligare återgivning med alla de relevanta parallellerna markerade i olika färger, rekommenderar jag pdf-filen på SM_JnLazarus_MkSwine

Secret Mark: from a Letter Attributed to Clement of Alexandria.  Morton Smith, Clement of Alexandria and a Secret Gospel of Mark (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973). Raising of Lazarus: John 11:1-46, 12:1New International Version (NIV) Gerasene Swine: Mark 5:1-20 New International Version (NIV)
To you, therefore, I shall not hesitate to answer the questions you have asked, refuting the falsifications by the very words of the Gospel. For example, after ”And they were in the road going up to Jerusalem” and what follows, until ”After three days he shall arise”, the secret Gospel brings the following material word for word:
”And they come into Bethany. And a certain woman whose brother had died was there. 1 Now a man named Lazarus was sick. He was from Bethany, the village of Mary and her sister Martha. 5:1 They went across the lake to the region of the Gerasenes 2 When Jesus got out of the boat, a man with an impure spirit
2 (This Mary, whose brother Lazarus now lay sick, was the same one who poured perfume on the Lord and wiped his feet with her hair.) 3 So the sisters sent word to Jesus, “Lord, the one you love is sick.” 4 When he heard this, Jesus said, “This sickness will not end in death. No, it is for God’s glory so that God’s Son may be glorified through it.” 5 Now Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Lazarus. 6 So when he heard that Lazarus was sick, he stayed where he was two more days, 7 and then he said to his disciples, “Let us go back to Judea.” 8 “But Rabbi,” they said, “a short while ago the Jews there tried to stone you, and yet you are going back?” 9 Jesus answered, “Are there not twelve hours of daylight? Anyone who walks in the daytime will not stumble, for they see by this world’s light. 10 It is when a person walks at night that they stumble, for they have no light.” 11 After he had said this, he went on to tell them, “Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep; but I am going there to wake him up.” 12 His disciples replied, “Lord, if he sleeps, he will get better.” 13 Jesus had been speaking of his death, but his disciples thought he meant natural sleep. 14 So then he told them plainly, “Lazarus is dead, 15 and for your sake I am glad I was not there, so that you may believe. But let us go to him.” 16 Then Thomas (also known as Didymus) said to the rest of the disciples, “Let us also go, that we may die with him.” 17 On his arrival, Jesus found that Lazarus had already been in the tomb for four days. 18 Now Bethany was less than two miles[b] from Jerusalem, 19 and many Jews had come to Martha and Mary to comfort them in the loss of their brother. 20 When Martha heard that Jesus was coming, she went out to meet him, but Mary stayed at home. 21 “Lord,” Martha said to Jesus, “if you had been here, my brother would not have died. 22 But I know that even now God will give you whatever you ask.” 23 Jesus said to her, “Your brother will rise again.” 24 Martha answered, “I know he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day.” 25 Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life. The one who believes in me will live, even though they die; 26 and whoever lives by believing in me will never die. Do you believe this?” 27 “Yes, Lord,” she replied, “I believe that you are the Messiah, the Son of God, who is to come into the world.” 28 After she had said this, she went back and called her sister Mary aside. “The Teacher is here,” she said, “and is asking for you.” 29 When Mary heard this, she got up quickly and went to him. 30 Now Jesus had not yet entered the village, but was still at the place where Martha had met him. 31 When the Jews who had been with Mary in the house, comforting her, noticed how quickly she got up and went out, they followed her, supposing she was going to the tomb to mourn there.
And, coming, she prostrated herself before Jesus and says to him, ”son of David, have mercy on me”. But the disciples rebuked her. 32 When Mary reached the place where Jesus was and saw him, she fell at his feet and said, “Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died.”
And Jesus, being angered, 33 When Jesus saw her weeping, and the Jews who had come along with her also weeping, he was deeply moved in spirit and troubled.
34 “Where have you laid him?” he asked. “Come and see, Lord,” they replied. 35 Jesus wept. 36 Then the Jews said, “See how he loved him!” 37 But some of them said, “Could not he who opened the eyes of the blind man have kept this man from dying?”
went off with her into the garden where the tomb was, 38 Jesus, once more deeply moved, came to the tomb. came from the tombs to meet him. 3 This man lived in the tombs,
( … came to the tomb.)  It was a cave with a stone laid across the entrance.39 “Take away the stone,” he said.   “But, Lord,” said Martha, the sister of the dead man, “by this time there is a bad odor, for he has been there four days.” (5 Night and day among the tombs and in the hills he would cry out and cut himself with stones.)
40 Then Jesus said, “Did I not tell you that if you believe, you will see the glory of God?” 41 So they took away the stone. Then Jesus looked up and said, “Father, I thank you that you have heard me. 42 I knew that you always hear me, but I said this for the benefit of the people standing here, that they may believe that you sent me.” (7 … , “What do you want with me, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? In God’s name don’t torture me!”)
43 When he had said this, Jesus called in a loud voice, (7 He shouted at the top of his voice, … )
“Lazarus, come out!” (8 For Jesus had said to him, “Come out of this man, you impure spirit!”)
and straightway, going in where the youth was, he stretched forth his hand and raised him, seizing his hand. 44 The dead man came out, his hands and feet wrapped with strips of linen, and a cloth around his face. and no one could bind him anymore, not even with a chain. 4 For he had often beenchained hand and foot,.
Jesus said to them, “Take off the grave clothes and let him go.” but he tore the chains apart and broke the irons on his feet. No one was strong enough to subdue him.
5 Night and day among the tombs and in the hills he would cry out and cut himself with stones. 6 When he saw Jesus from a distance, he ran and fell on his knees in front of him. 7 He shouted at the top of his voice, “What do you want with me, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? In God’s name don’t torture me!” 8 For Jesus had said to him, “Come out of this man, you impure spirit!”9 Then Jesus asked him, “What is your name?”  “My name is Legion,” he replied, “for we are many.” 10 And he begged Jesus again and again not to send them out of the area. 11 A large herd of pigs was feeding on the nearby hillside. 12 The demons begged Jesus, “Send us among the pigs; allow us to go into them.” 13 He gave them permission, and the impure spirits came out and went into the pigs. The herd, about two thousand in number, rushed down the steep bank into the lake and were drowned. 14 Those tending the pigs ran off and reported this in the town and countryside, and the people went out to see what had happened. 15 When they came to Jesus, they saw the man who had been possessed by the legion of demons, sitting there, dressed and in his right mind; and they were afraid. 16 Those who had seen it told the people what had happened to the demon-possessed man—and told about the pigs as well. 17 Then the people began to plead with Jesus to leave their region.
But the youth, looking upon him, loved him and began to beseech him that he might be with him. 18 As Jesus was getting into the boat, the man who had been demon-possessed begged to go with him.”
And going out of the tomb they came into the house of the youth, for he was rich. And after six days Jesus told him what to do and in the evening the youth comes to him, wearing a linen cloth over his naked body. (John 12:1 Six days before the Passover, Jesus came to Bethany, where Lazarus lived, whom Jesus had raised from the dead.) (15 When they came to Jesus, they saw the man who had been possessed by the legion of demons, sitting there, dressed and in his right mind; and they were afraid.)
And he remained with him that night, for Jesus taught him the mystery of the Kingdom of God. 19 Jesus did not let him, but said, “Go home to your own people and tell them how much the Lord has done for you, and how he has had mercy on you.
And thence, arising, he returned to the other side of the Jordan.” (46 But some of them went to the Pharisees and told them what Jesus had done.) 20 So the man went away and began to tell in the Decapolis how much Jesus had done for him.
45 Therefore many of the Jews who had come to visit Mary, and had seen what Jesus did, believed in him. 46 But some of them went to the Pharisees and told them what Jesus had done. And all the people were amazed. (16 Those who had seen it told the people what had happened to the demon-possessed man—and told about the pigs as well.)
And these words follow the text, ”And James and John come to him” and all that section. But ”naked man with naked man” and the other things about which you wrote, are not found. And after the words,”And he comes into Jericho,” the secret Gospel adds only, ”And the sister of the youth whom Jesus loved and his mother and Salome were there, and Jesus did not receive them.” But many other things about which you wrote both seem to be and are falsifications. Now the true explanation and that which accords with the true philosophy. John 12:1 Six days before the Passover, Jesus came to Bethany, where Lazarus lived, whom Jesus had raised from the dead. 2 Here a dinner was given in Jesus’ honor. Martha served, while Lazarus was among those reclining at the table with him. (17 Then the people began to plead with Jesus to leave their region.)
DBlocker 8/2011

12 kommentarer

  1. Sarnov Gekkisen said,

    30 september, 2011 den 20:01

    Where book you find this in, but professores not teach this ?
    Does pig legion dronded in lake like Romanos soldi, later added to console for Jew defeat by Romanos?
    I like here and sad when go home.

    Gilla

  2. jimmy said,

    1 oktober, 2011 den 20:00

    ”Det verkar som om ”Markus” hade en samling osammanhängande berättelser som han fogade samman till en enda berättelse. Hans litterära tekniker med interkalationer och inramningsberättelser (det vill säga att infoga några av berättelserna i andra berättelser i stället för att foga dem efter varandra) ger oss en uppfattning om hur fritt han arbetat med sitt material.”

    Jaa du Roger… om man ser du Markus som en samvetslös bedragare så…

    Gilla

  3. 2 oktober, 2011 den 09:33

    Jag tror att du förstår Jimmy att jag inte avsåg att ”Markus” var en samvetslös bedragare. Jag bara poängterar att den som skrev evangeliet (vi kan använda Markus som kodord för denne) tog sig stora friheter med materialet, antingen för att han inte betraktade det som så ”heligt” som många av nutidens kristna tycks göra, eller för att han aldrig ansåg sig skriva historia. Han kan ju inte hållas ansvarig för hur framtida generationer valt att tolka materialet.

    Gilla

  4. 2 oktober, 2011 den 09:47

    Dear Sarnov Gekkisen.

    I first ran into this idea in William R. Harwood’s book “Mythology’s Last Gods: Yahweh and Jesus” (New York 1992). There is an odd coincidence that the originally Latin word legion is used to describe demons entering a heard of swine, as the swine (or actually the boar) was one of the main symbols of the tenth Roman legion, and that legion was left in Palestine in 70 CE to guard the devastated countryside of Palestine. It is not such a far-fetched assumption that the “legion of swine” is an allusion to the tenth Roman legion and that this story therefore was written at the earliest in 70 CE.

    Gilla

  5. jimmy said,

    2 oktober, 2011 den 10:54

    Roger, jo jag förstår att du inte avsåg det men det tolkas så eftersom du skriver att Markus ”fogar ju samman olika berättelser med hjälp av interkalationer och inramningsberättelser” och försöker göra sitt allra bästa med materialet för att lösa sin uppgift, därför kan man inte lägga ansvaret på senare generationer kristna som utan undantag lyckas tolka allt vad Markus sade till något helt annat, trots att de kunde språket.

    Gilla

  6. DBlocker said,

    2 oktober, 2011 den 22:57

    I just noticed that the Luke version of the demon possessed man and demon receptive swine (Luke 8:26-39), first stated that the tomb-dwelling demon-possessed man wore no clothes, but following his cure, he sat at the FEET of Jesus and was clothed. and in his right mind. (Luke 8:35, ” … they came to Jesus, and found the man from whom the demons had gone out, sitting down at the feet of Jesus, clothed and in his right mind, … ”)

    Note the clothing trope which is also in Secret Mark (the young man put on a linen garment over his nakedness after he was cured of being dead), and the Raising of Lazarus in the Gospel of John (Lazarus took off his grave clothes), and the ”sitting at the FEET” imagery (Luke 8:35), which is also found in Luke 10:39, (Mary ,the sister of Lazarus, sitting at Jesus’ FEET), and Luke 7:38 (the woman with ointment at Jesus FEET) and John12 1-8 (the anointing of Jesus FEET by Mary, the sister of Lazarus).

    Also note that the young man in Secret Mark was clothed, wanted to accompany Jesus and was no longer dead and had his mind put right by Jesus’ teachings, just as Luke’s cured demoniac was clothed, wanted to accompany Jesus, and no longer lived in tombs (like the dead) and was in his right mind, after Jesus had had words with him and cast out his demons.

    Were ”demon possessed” or ”dead” consistent New Testament metaphors for having incorrect ideology? In this case, an ideology that caused the young men to reject Jesus prior to having their mindset corrected (cured) and being converted to become followers of Jesus after hearing him?

    In spite of the Secret Mark excerpt being so short, more and more it appears there is a bridge between SM and other gospels,, both canonical and non canonical (See Roger’s post for 5 August, 2011).

    If Secret Mark, is indeed Morton Smith’s creation, I can only sit in awe at his feet, astounded by his erudition, and the depths of inter-textual linkage that he was able to insert into his forgery.

    Roger, Thank you for being a gracious host.

    Gilla

  7. 3 oktober, 2011 den 10:50

    Your suggestion David, is strengthened by the fact that the excerpt of the raising of the youth in Secret Mark (between Mark 10:34 and 35) is preceded by the scene of The Rich youth and the Kingdom of God (Mark 10:17–29). In that scene there is also a rich and young man present; a youth who has kept the commandments since he was a boy. Jesus encourages him to sell everything he has and give to the poor, and then to follow him. The man then walks away sadly, because he was rich. Mark never says that the man was young simply that he ran up to Jesus, which might indicate that he was young. But the parallel in Matthew (19:20) says that the man was young (and in Luke 18:18 that he was “a ruler”, which might identify him with the unnamed “other disciple” in John 18:15ff who is said to be acquainted with the High Priest).

    This man is accordingly also young and rich and Jesus looked at him and loved (ἀγαπάω) him. All these three designations (young, rich and beloved) are directly afterwards also given to the man Jesus raises in Secret Mark.

    You say David that “’demon possessed’ or ‘dead’” could have been “consistent New Testament metaphors for having incorrect ideology”. That in this case there were “an ideology that caused the young men to reject Jesus prior to having their mindset corrected (cured) and being converted to become followers of Jesus after hearing him”. And the Rich youth who wanted the Kingdom of God did also reject Jesus’ assumption to give it all up. But if it all is meant to be interpreted symbolically, then he finally “gave it all up, died, and was resurrected by Jesus in the next scene in Secret Mark. And after a number of fixed days, he was initiated by Jesus at night.

    Gilla

  8. DBlocker said,

    5 oktober, 2011 den 22:07

    @Roger:

    Healing the sick and raising the dead as spiritual metaphors used to disguise the political act of ideological conversion.

    From Post #6 above:

    ”Were ”demon possessed” or ”dead” consistent New Testament metaphors for having incorrect ideology? In this case, an ideology that caused the young men to reject Jesus prior to having their mindset corrected (cured) and being converted to become followers of Jesus after hearing him?”

    I searched my library and found this:

    ” … -then it follows that the one who is neither called nor in need of healing among the Christians would be a righteous man who had not gone astray.” From RJ Hoffman, Porphyry’s Against the Christians, Prometheus Books, 1994, p.79.

    From From R. Kitchen and M. Parmentier, The Book of Steps, the Syriac Liber Graduum, Cistercian Publications,Kalamazoo Mi, 2004:

    The sick = those weak in faith, morally rigid, and anxious to judge others, Memra 4

    The children = the spiritually immature who cannot avoid associating with sinners, and who are easily influenced away from faith, Memra 5.

    God promised illnesses for transgression against his commandments (sinning), for which there are medicines (cures, i.e. healings). Memra 7.18

    In the 3rd and 4th century both an anti-Christian polemicist and a Christian apologist understood that illness (and youth/childishness) was a metaphor used to describe a persons level of commitment to Christianity. Being healed or raised from the dead would indicate a successful act of persuasion to return to or acceptance of Christian beliefs.

    Were these metaphors understood the same way at an earlier period of time? Both the Emperor Claudius and Paul’s opponents in the Book of Acts described Christianity as a plague, a spreading mental illness. Tacitus used plague-like metaphors when he mentioned the early Christians in conjunction with the Rome Fire. Can the public healings in the New Testament be a metaphor clear only to the Christian initiate meaning haranguing a crowd, that is an act of rabble rousing?

    As Roger suggested above, was there originally an extended narrative in a proto-gospel about an influential or rich man who was eventually persuaded to become one of Jesus’ followers?

    ( The 4th c. group for whom the homilies collected in the ”The Book of Steps, the Syriac Liber Graduum” were composed had a theology that bears a strong relationship to that of the much later 11th to 13th c. Cathar heresy. Catharism, rather than being a medieval development , appears to have had a precursor in the early formative period of Christianity. While the Druze are even less well documented than the Cathars, they have a social structure made up of ordinary people and the perfected individuals as did the Cathars. Hebrews 12:22-24 hints at the presence of ”Perfecti”among early Christian practitioners. A Cathar-like sect would be the bane of any authoritarian regime.)

    Gilla

  9. Den andre BB said,

    6 oktober, 2011 den 02:14

    ”Both the Emperor Claudius and Paul’s opponents in the Book of Acts described Christianity as a plague, a spreading mental illness.” Where did Claudius Caesar describe Christianity at all? ” Tacitus used plague-like metaphors when he mentioned the early Christians in conjunction with the Rome Fire” – did he? Because the ”evil” was repressed and then spread, or why?

    I övrigt tycker jag att jämförelsematerialet är alldeles för litet för att man ska kunna dra några värdefulla slutsatser alls gällande grisparallellen. Långa passager har ju, som kan noteras, inga motsvarigheter i jämförelsetexterna. Människor tenderar att hitta paralleller mellan de flesta texter om de stirrar på dem tillräckligt länge.

    Gilla

  10. DBlocker said,

    6 oktober, 2011 den 17:45

    At comment 9.

    From the Letter of Claudius to the Alexandrians, ( Select Papyri II [Loeb Classical Library] (ed. A.S.Hunt and G.C. Edgar) (1934), pp. 78-89, adapted.) :

    ”….and not to bring in or admit Jews who come down the river from Egypt or from Syria, a proceeding which will compel me to conceive serious suspicions. Otherwise I will by all means take vengeance on them as fomenters of which is A GENERAL PLAGUE INFECTING THE WHOLE WORLD. If, desisting from these courses, you consent to live with mutual forebearance and kindliness, I on my side will exercise a solicitude of very long standing for the city, as one which is bound to us by traditional friendship.”

    Sorry, Claudius was not commenting on Christians in particular, but on revolutionaries and what Josephus would have called religious innovators in general, who were creating unrest in the Jewish quarter of Alexandria.
    However, this does show the use of the disease metaphor applied to what the Romans would have considered Jewish trouble makers.

    Gilla

  11. DBlocker said,

    26 oktober, 2011 den 02:39

    Isaiah 65: 3-5. ”The people who provoke My anger, … who sit inside tombs and pass the night in secret places: who eat the flesh of swine, with the broth of unclean things in their bowels, who say, ”Keep your distance! Don’t come closer! For I would render you consecrated”.” JPS 1985.

    Gilla

  12. DBlocker said,

    10 december, 2011 den 03:01

    Regarding kommentar 9 and 10:

    Here be articles written by respected scholars who state there is an allusion to Christianity in the letter of Claudius. They reason that a disease or plague metaphor had been applied to Christianity by the Romans.

    S.Reinach, ”La premier allusion au christianisme dans l’histoire” Revue de l’histoire des religions 90, 1924, pp 108-122.

    F. Cumont, ”La lettre de Claude aux Alexandria”, ibid. 91, 1925, pp.3-6.

    I want to offer my sincere thanks to ”Den andre BB sa” whose comments inspired me to search for the articles listed above.

    A clarification of kommentar 11:

    The Gerascene Swine pericope may be a response to Isaiah 65;3-5. The author of the Gerascene Swine pericope used this text as the basis of his description of his tomb dwelling, demon infested (having unclean things within him) , hermit, whose inner demons were made one with swine. by Jesus.

    Mark 5:5-17 has no counter part in either ”longer Mark” or John 11. It looks like an interpolation or a variation of the Markan intercalation technique of nesting a second narrative into a surrounding framing narrative.

    Gilla


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