Jesuspassagerna hos Josefus – en fallstudie, del 3h – ”Brodern till Jesus som kallades Kristus”: Origenes’ kännedom; Kyrkofader Eusebios, Hegesippos

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Exkurs

Detta är del 3h av min avhandling Jesuspassagerna hos Josefus – en fallstudie, vilken jag också publicerar i översättning till engelska.

The English version.

III. Brodern till Jesus som kallades Kristus, vars namn var Jakob

Origenes’ kännedom om en annan Jakobpassage

Kyrkofader Eusebios

Hegesippos

I vilket fall hände det att Hegesippos och Josefus blandades samman, vilket för övrigt visar sig även i Pseudo-Hegesippos’ verk som egentligen bar namnet Iosippus på grund av att det var en latinsk parafrasering av Josefus’ Om det judiska kriget (se Pseudo-Hegesippos). Oavsett varifrån Origenes fått uppgiften, kom Eusebios i sin tur att läsa Origenes och fann med all säkerhet stycket hos honom med uppgiften att det förekom hos Josefus. Om passagen hade förekommit också i Eusebios’ handskrift av Judiska fornminnen borde den ha överlevt till vår tid. Rimligen återgav han stycket utan att ange var någonstans det förekom, eftersom Origenes inte förmedlade uppgiften. Hieronymus tog samma stycke från antingen Origenes eller Eusebios, vilka han båda var förtrogna med. Fanns uppgiften i den handskrift av Josefus som Origenes hade tillgång till, kan den ha införts redan på 100-talet, eftersom föreställningen att Jesus skulle ha haft biologiska bröder med tiden blev allt mer impopulär i och med att fokus försköts mot den obefläckade avlelsen.

Enligt citatet ovan från Eusebios, beskrev kyrkofader Hegesippos omkring år 170 vt Jakobs död på följande sätt: Jakob störtades ned från templets takspets och stenades därefter men överlevde båda händelserna, varpå en valkare, dvs. en filtmakare, slog ihjäl honom med en klubba. Hegesippos skriver att ”förståndiga judar ansåg att denna händelse förorsakat Jerusalems belägring”. Även Klemens av Alexandria, som till yttermera visso var Origenes’ lärare, skall ha ansett att Jakobs död gått till på det sättet.[231]

Det finns alltså två möjliga källor till Origenes’ uppgift om att avrättandet av Jakob ledde till Jerusalems förstörelse, antingen Josefus eller en kristen författare, då troligast Hegesippos. Om Origenes som han säger tagit uppgiften från Josefus var det med all säkerhet en passage som inte skrevs av Josefus eftersom Josefus omöjligen kan ha skyllt Jerusalems öde på avrättningen av denne Jakob och att textstället då rimligen skulle ha överlevt. De kristna skulle inte ha låtit en sådan passage försvinna om den förekommit i alla handskrifter. Om Origenes däremot missmint sig och blandat samman Josefus med exempelvis Hegesippos betyder det att han inte alls bevittnar att Josefus skrivit något om Jesus och Jakob. I stället kom då Origenes’ påstående att Josefus skrivit passagen att påverka andra, som exempelvis Eusebios, till att tro detta. Eftersom formuleringen ”brodern till Jesus som kallades Kristus” är identisk med det som står i den nu förekommande Jakobpassagen, borde i så fall Origenes’ ”misstag” vara upphovet till även denna interpolation. Det är svårt att avgöra vilket scenario som är mest sannolikt, men eftersom Origenes verkar veta i exakt vilken bok Josefus skriver om Johannes, borde han också ha vetat att det han skrev om Jakob förekom hos Josefus (se: Erkände inte Jesus som Messias).

Roger Viklund. 2011-04-08


[231] Eusebios skriver:

“But Clement in the sixth book of his Hypotyposes writes thus: ‘For they say that Peter and James and John after the ascension of our Saviour, as if also preferred by our Lord, strove not after honor, but chose James the Just bishop of Jerusalem.’ But the same writer, in the seventh book of the same work, relates also the following things concerning him: ”The Lord after his resurrection imparted knowledge to James the Just and to John and Peter, and they imparted it to the rest of the apostles, and the rest of the apostles to the seventy, of whom Barnabas was one. But there were two Jameses: one called the Just, who was thrown from the pinnacle of the temple and was beaten to death with a club by a fuller, and another who was beheaded.” Paul also makes mention of the same James the Just, where he writes, ‘Other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord’s brother.’” (Eusebios, Kyrkohistoria 2:1:2–4)

“The manner of James’ death has been already indicated by the above-quoted words of Clement, who records that he was thrown from the pinnacle of the temple, and was beaten to death with a club. But Hegesippus, who lived immediately after the apostles, gives the most accurate account in the fifth book of his Memoirs. He writes as follows:  James, the brother of the Lord, succeeded to the government of the Church in conjunction with the apostles. He has been called the Just by all from the time of our Saviour to the present day; for there were many that bore the name of James. He was holy from his mother’s womb; and he drank no wine nor strong drink, nor did he eat flesh. No razor came upon his head; he did not anoint himself with oil, and he did not use the bath. He alone was permitted to enter into the holy place; for he wore not woolen but linen garments. And he was in the habit of entering alone into the temple, and was frequently found upon his knees begging forgiveness for the people, so that his knees became hard like those of a camel, in consequence of his constantly bending them in his worship of God, and asking forgiveness for the people. Because of his exceeding great justice he was called the Just, and Oblias, which signifies in Greek, ‘Bulwark of the people’ and ‘Justice,’ in accordance with what the prophets declare concerning him. Now some of the seven sects, which existed among the people and which have been mentioned by me in the Memoirs, asked him, ‘What is the gate of Jesus?’ and he replied that he was the Saviour. On account of these words some believed that Jesus is the Christ. But the sects mentioned above did not believe either in a resurrection or in one’s coming to give to every man according to his works. But as many as believed did so on account of James. Therefore when many even of the rulers believed, there was a commotion among the Jews and Scribes and Pharisees, who said that there was danger that the whole people would be looking for Jesus as the Christ. Coming therefore in a body to James they said, ‘We entreat you, restrain the people; for they are gone astray in regard to Jesus, as if he were the Christ. We entreat you to persuade all that have come to the feast of the Passover concerning Jesus; for we all have confidence in you. For we bear you witness, as do all the people, that you are just, and do not respect persons. Therefore, persuade the multitude not to be led astray concerning Jesus. For the whole people, and all of us also, have confidence in you. Stand therefore upon the pinnacle of the temple, that from that high position you may be clearly seen, and that your words may be readily heard by all the people. For all the tribes, with the Gentiles also, have come together on account of the Passover.’ The aforesaid Scribes and Pharisees therefore placed James upon the pinnacle of the temple, and cried out to him and said: ‘You just one, in whom we ought all to have confidence, forasmuch as the people are led astray after Jesus, the crucified one, declare to us, what is the gate of Jesus.’ And he answered with a loud voice, ‘Why do you ask me concerning Jesus, the Son of Man? He himself sits in heaven at the right hand of the great Power, and is about to come upon the clouds of heaven.’ And when many were fully convinced and gloried in the testimony of James, and said, ‘Hosanna to the Son of David,’ these same Scribes and Pharisees said again to one another, ‘We have done badly in supplying such testimony to Jesus. But let us go up and throw him down, in order that they may be afraid to believe him.’ And they cried out, saying, ‘Oh! Oh! The just man is also in error.’ And they fulfilled the Scripture written in Isaiah, ‘Let us take away the just man, because he is troublesome to us: therefore they shall eat the fruit of their doings.’ So they went up and threw down the just man, and said to each other, ‘Let us stone James the Just.’ And they began to stone him, for he was not killed by the fall; but he turned and knelt down and said, ‘I entreat you, Lord God our Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.’  And while they were thus stoning him one of the priests of the sons of Rechab, the son of the Rechabites, who are mentioned by Jeremiah the prophet, cried out, saying, ‘Stop. What are you doing? The just one prays for you.’ And one of them, who was a fuller, took the club with which he beat out clothes and struck the just man on the head. And thus he suffered martyrdom. And they buried him on the spot, by the temple, and his monument still remains by the temple. He became a true witness, both to Jews and Greeks, that Jesus is the Christ. And immediately Vespasian besieged them.  These things are related at length by Hegesippus, who is in agreement with Clement. James was so admirable a man and so celebrated among all for his justice, that the more sensible even of the Jews were of the opinion that this was the cause of the siege of Jerusalem, which happened to them immediately after his martyrdom for no other reason than their daring act against him.” (Eusebios, Kyrkohistoria 2:23:3-19)

<a href=”https://rogerviklund.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/josephusmaybe.png”><img class=”alignright size-full wp-image-2812″ title=”Josephusmaybe” src=”https://rogerviklund.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/josephusmaybe.png&#8221; alt=”” width=”180″ height=”382″ /></a><strong>Jesuspassagerna hos Josefus. </strong>
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<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><strong> </strong><strong> </strong><strong><a href=”../2011/03/05/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2d-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-innehall-och-sammanhang-var-eusebios-kronikor-eller-skronikor/”>Del 2d</a></strong></td>
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<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/12/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2i-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-de-eftereusebiska-grekiska-bevittnandena-johannes-chrysost/”><strong> </strong></a><strong> </strong><strong><a href=”../2011/03/11/2011/03/07/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2e-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-innehall-och-sammanhang-tf-passar-ej-i-sitt-sammanhang/”>Del 2e</a></strong></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/13/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2j-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-de-eftereusebiska-grekiska-bevittnandena-theodoretos-och-f/”><strong> </strong></a><strong> </strong><strong><a href=”../2011/03/08/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2f-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-innehall-och-sammanhang-testimonium-flavianums-obetydlighet/”>Del 2f</a></strong></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/15/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2k-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-de-latinska-oversattningarna-pseudo-hegesippos/”><strong> </strong></a><strong> </strong><strong><a href=”../2011/03/09/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2g-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-avsaknad-av-foreusebiska-bevittnanden/”>Del 2g</a></strong></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/16/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2l-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-de-latinska-oversattningarna-hieronymus/”><strong> </strong></a><strong> </strong><strong><a href=”/2011/03/11/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2h-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-origenes%E2%80%99-bevittnande-av-tfs-franvaro/”>Del 2h</a></strong></td>
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<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/19/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2m-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-de-syriska-och-arabiska-oversattningarna-agapius-och-mikae/”><strong> </strong></a><a href=”/2011/03/12/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2i-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-de-eftereusebiska-grekiska-bevittnandena-johannes-chrysost/”><strong>Del 2i</strong></a></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/19/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2n-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-de-syriska-och-arabiska-oversattningarna-de-gemensamma-kal/”><strong> </strong></a><a href=”/2011/03/13/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2j-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-de-eftereusebiska-grekiska-bevittnandena-theodoretos-och-f/”><strong>Del 2j</strong></a></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/20/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2o-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-han-ansags-vara-messias-ett-annorlunda-tf/”><strong> </strong></a><strong><a href=”/2011/03/15/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2k-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-de-latinska-oversattningarna-pseudo-hegesippos/”><strong>Del 2k</strong></a></strong></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/21/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2p-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-ovriga-om-det-judiska-kriget/”><strong> </strong></a><strong><a href=”/2011/03/16/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2l-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-de-latinska-oversattningarna-hieronymus/”><strong>Del 2l</strong></a></strong></td>
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<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/22/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2q-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-ovriga-slaviska-josefus/”><strong> </strong></a><a href=”/2011/03/19/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2m-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-de-syriska-och-arabiska-oversattningarna-agapius-och-mikae/”><strong>Del 2m</strong></a></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/23/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2r-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-ovriga-josippon/”><strong> </strong></a><strong><a href=”/2011/03/19/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2n-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-de-syriska-och-arabiska-oversattningarna-de-gemensamma-kal/”><strong>Del 2n</strong></a></strong></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/24/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2s-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-ovriga-robert-eisler/”><strong> </strong></a><a href=”/2011/03/20/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2o-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-han-ansags-vara-messias-ett-annorlunda-tf/”><strong>Del 2o</strong></a></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/25/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2t-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-innehallsforteckningen/”><strong> </strong></a><a href=”/2011/03/21/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2p-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-ovriga-om-det-judiska-kriget/”><strong>Del 2p</strong></a></td>
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<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/22/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2q-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-ovriga-slaviska-josefus/”><strong>Del 2q</strong></a></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/23/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2r-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-ovriga-josippon/”><strong>Del 2r</strong></a></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/24/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2s-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-kyrkofadernas-kannedom-om-tf-ovriga-robert-eisler/”><strong>Del 2s</strong></a></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/25/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-2t-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dtestimonium-flavianum%E2%80%9D-innehallsforteckningen/”><strong>Del 2t</strong></a></td>
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<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><strong> </strong><a href=”/2011/03/26/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-3a-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dbrodern-till-jesus-som-kallades-kristus%E2%80%9D-jakobpassagen-hos-josefus-judiska-fornminnen-20200/”><strong>Del 3a</strong></a></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><a href=”/2011/03/27/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-3b-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dbrodern-till-jesus-som-kallades-kristus%E2%80%9D-jakobpassagen-hos-josefus-tidigare-identifiering/”><strong> </strong><strong>Del 3b</strong></a></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><strong> </strong><a href=”/2011/03/28/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-3c-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dbrodern-till-jesus-som-kallades-kristus%E2%80%9D-jakobpassagen-hos-josefus-tidigare-identifiering-identifieringen/”><strong>Del 3c</strong></a></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><strong> </strong><a href=”/2011/03/30/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-3d-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dbrodern-till-jesus-som-kallades-kristus%E2%80%9D-origenes%E2%80%99-kannedom-om-matteus-och-mot-kelsos/”><strong>Del 3d</strong></a></td>
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<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><strong> </strong><a href=”/2011/04/04/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-3e-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dbrodern-till-jesus-som-kallades-kristus%E2%80%9D-origenes%E2%80%99-kannedom-erkande-inte-jesus-som-messias/”><strong>Del 3e</strong></a></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><strong> </strong><a href=”/2011/04/05/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-3f-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dbrodern-till-jesus-som-kallades-kristus%E2%80%9D-origenes%E2%80%99-kannedom-orsaken-till-jerusalems-odelaggelse/”><strong>Del 3f</strong></a></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><strong> </strong><a href=”/2011/04/07/jesuspassagerna-hos-josefus-%E2%80%93-en-fallstudie-del-3g-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dbrodern-till-jesus-som-kallades-kristus%E2%80%9D-origenes%E2%80%99-kannedom-kyrkofader-eusebios/”><strong>Del 3g</strong></a></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><strong> </strong><strong>Del 3h</strong></td>
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<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><strong> </strong></td>
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<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><strong> </strong></td>
<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><strong> </strong></td>
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<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><strong> </strong></td>
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<td width=”66″ valign=”top”><strong> </strong></td>
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Detta är del 3g av min avhandling <a href=”http://www.jesusgranskad.se/Josefus3.htm”>Jesuspassagerna hos Josefus – en fallstudie</a>, vilken jag också publicerar i översättning till engelska.The <a href=”/2011/04/07/the-jesus-passages-in-josephus-%E2%80%93-a-case-study-part-3g-%E2%80%93-%E2%80%9Dthe-brother-of-jesus-who-was-called-christ%E2%80%9D-origen%E2%80%99s-knowledge-church-father-eusebius/”>English version</a>.
<h2 style=”text-align: center;”><strong>III. Brodern till Jesus</strong><strong> som kallades Kristus, vars namn var Jakob</strong></h2>
<strong> </strong>
<h3 style=”text-align: center;”><strong>Origenes’ kännedom om en annan Jakobpassage</strong><strong><em> </em></strong></h3>
<h4><strong>Kyrkofader Eusebios</strong></h4>

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